LEAD Action News
LEAD Action News Volume 13 Number 4, June 2013, ISSN 1324-6011
Incorporating Lead Aware Times ( ISSN 1440-4966) and Lead Advisory Service News (ISSN 1440-0561)
The Journal of The LEAD (Lead Education and Abatement Design) Group Inc.
Editorial Team: Elizabeth O’Brien, Zac Gethin-Damon, Hitesh Lohani, Shristi Lohani and David Ratcliffe

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Environmental Risks Arising from Changes in Ammunition Materials

Copyright © 2013 – Cylenchar Limited Dr Peter J Hurley – Cylenchar Limited UK

The following article is a summary of ‘Environmental Risks Arising from Changes in Ammunition Materials’ presentation, delivered at the XXIV European Shooting Confederation General Assembly, in Moscow 17 May 2013.


Risk is a combination of the probability, or frequency of occurrence of a defined hazard, and the magnitude of the consequences of that hazard. We have to understand that ‘Risk’ itself, is not ‘Hazard’. Poisons are hazardous. Having a poison safely contained 
and locked up, whilst being a hazard, poses little risk.

In the context of land contamination, and environmental risk, we have to understand the concept of “pollutant linkage”. Essentially it’s the chain of criteria that must be in place for a ‘hazard’ to become ‘risk’. There are 3 essential components to the pollutant linkage chain:

  • Firstly, A contaminant- The substance that is in, on or under the land that has potential to cause harm or to cause pollution of controlled water
  • Secondly, a receptor, i.e. a body that would potentially be harmed by the hazard, in general terms, something that could be adversely affected by a contaminant, such as people, an ecological system, property, or a water body.
  • Thirdly and most critically there has to be a pathway or route by which the hazard can impact the receptor. No matter how big the hazard, if there’s no potential pathway, there’s no risk.

Environmental Risks Arising from Changes in Ammunition Materials
The Contaminant – Metallic Lead?
Does Steel Shot Reduce Environmental Risk?
European Soils – Typical Profile and Predicted Impact of Steel Shot
Site Risk! - Added Pathways
Mitigation of Site Risk

Copyright © 2013 – Cylenchar Limited

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