|LEAD Action News vol 11 Number
4, June 2011, ISSN 1324-6011
Incorporating Lead Aware Times (ISSN 1440-4966) & Lead Advisory Service News (ISSN 1440-0561)
The journal of The LEAD (Lead Education and Abatement Design) Group Inc.
Editor: Anne Roberts
Democracy and the Elimination of Leaded Petrol in 2006
‘In 2006, democracy data was available for the following countries which continued to use lead additives in their vehicular fuels: Afghanistan, Algeria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Macedonia, Morocco, Myanmar, Palestine, Serbia, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Yemen. Data was not available for Western Sahara. The Democracy Index for 2006 assessed the democracy levels of 167 countries throughout the world (Economist Intelligence Unit 2007)…
‘ more countries which had eliminated lead from their vehicular fuels displayed higher democracy values than countries which had not eliminated lead from their vehicular fuels...The four leaded countries returning democracy values above 5.5 were Macedonia, Serbia, Palestine and Bosnia-Herzegovina.
‘…it was possible to conclude with confidence that a relationship existed between democracy values and the elimination or non-elimination of leaded additives from vehicular fuels.
‘From these findings, it can be confidently asserted that in 2006 the likelihood that a country was leaded was related to its level of democracy, and that leaded countries were substantially less likely to be democratic than unleaded countries.’
[As with corruption, it is not possible to state that the connection is causative], however,
‘These findings provide strong support for the proposition that failures to address the low levels of democracy present in countries that continued to rely on leaded petrol may have been inhibiting the global effort to eliminate lead additives from vehicular fuels in 2006.’
2010 data on democracy and the use of leaded petrol
system lead poisoning |
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Updated 26 January 2012