Action News Volume 7 No 4, 2000, ISSN 1324-6011
Incorporating Lead Aware Times ( ISSN 1440-4966) and Lead Advisory Service News ( ISSN 1440-0561)
The Journal of The LEAD (Lead Education and Abatement Design) Group Inc.
Web-Links about Candles
By Cathy Flanders, Indoor Air
Quality List Manager and Moderator,
Cathy Flanders has put together a comprehensive list of websites that carry information about the candle issue as it has developed in the US since 1997.
www.healthhouse.org/ American Lung Association November 1999 Press Release: Candles Can Create Unhealthy Indoor Air Quality: Health House Encourages Care In Burning Candles at Home, Especially This Holiday Season (November 8, 1999, PDF version) "...The Health House project of the American Lung Association warns that slow burning candles, particularly scented ones, can emit fumes with lead or mercury, as well as volatile organic compounds.
The following are links to various stories & reports that came out recently. Additional links to recent media coverage & information can be found at:
http://www.loe.org/shows/shows.html?programID=99-P13-00044 A Burning Issue: National Public Radio Broadcast Living on Earth Segment 29th October 1999.
http://web.ksl.com/dump/news/cc/candles.htm NBC & CNN Broadcast similar stories to the Living on Earth Segment on the evening news: Candle Dangers
www.9news.com/ Denver TV Market: 9 NEWS Consumer Corner - We the People
http://www.sph.umich.edu/iscr/faculty/profile.cfm?uniqname=jnriagu Jerome Nriagu, Department of Environmental and Industrial Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan
http://www.leadsafe.org/Parents/Sources/Candles_2.html No longer available from this link.
Nriagu Study - Some Candles Emit Dangerous Levels Of Lead. Dr. Nriagus study resulted in the American Lung Association issuing a warning regarding candles & lead late in 1999. "Assuming that only 50 percent of the lead released is deposited in an area measuring 12 feet by 15 feet (such as a living room), we estimate that the loading of the lead to house dust will exceed the U.S. EPA guideline of 1000 micrograms per square meter by burning one of the Chinese candles for a few hours. Our data thus shows that burning leaded candles can result in extensive contamination of the air and house dust with lead," Nriagu said.
In general, Nriagu found that metal cores in Chinese candles were made of either pure lead or lead alloy while those made in the United States or Mexico consisted of zinc or lead-containing alloys. Lead was detected in small quantities in emissions from zinc-based wicks, suggesting that the lead may be a common contaminant in the zinc, wick or wax. The levels of lead were small, but still may represent a health risk over a long period of time.
http://www.baileyeng Has an excellent article that contains some of the test evaluations used to compile data for a candle emissions study by Bailey Engineering Corporation. also article on Black Soot Deposition.
http://www.unified-eng.com/people/streitCV.html Dr. Lori Streit, Unified Engineering, Inc., Lombard, IL. Dr. Streit did some of the early air chamber emissions testing and analysis and was one of two labs to discover that a significant quantity of lead was present in the Gap candles.
http://www.aflab.com/ Contact: John Corn or Andy Armstrong, Armstrong Forensic Laboratory, Arlington, TX. John has performed in-depth testing, analysis and modelling re: lead emissions from candles from Gap & Banana Republic for the purpose of a class action.
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