LEAD Action News
LEAD Action News vol 8 no 2, 2001, ISSN 1324-6011
Incorporating Lead Aware Times ( ISSN 1440-4966) and Lead Advisory Service News ( ISSN 1440-0561)
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Fully Referenced Expanded Version of
"New strategies needed to cut lead pollution",
Guest Article, Science and Technology Column, Canberra Times
Thursday 25th January 2001

Lead - From The Petrol Bowser To Blood And Bone - part 9

by Elizabeth O'Brien, National Coordinator of The LEAD Group and
Mariann Lloyd-Smith, Coordinator of the National Toxics Network

ct.jpg (63756 bytes)

A RESPONSE TO: "Lead may be dead but we've been had"

PDF version of this file: New strategies needed to cut lead pollution

REFERENCES:

  1. AIP (Australian Institute of Petroleum Ltd), "Estimated Relative Benzene Exhaust Emissions from Australian Car Fleet", Fax sent to Elizabeth O'Brien in 1994 by AIP, Melbourne

  2. AIP, FACTSHEET "Benzene in Petrol", (Available at www.aip.com.au - Education site, On-line resources, Petroleum Topics) 1995, Melbourne

  3. AIP, Pre-1985 Cars Suited to Unleaded Petrol ["The List"] - Supplement to AIP News, July-August 1992, Melbourne

  4. American Academy of Neurology, MEDIA RELEASE: On-the-Job Lead Exposure Could Increase Alzheimer's Risk, 3rd May 2000

  5. Annest, JL, GRAPH: Change in Blood Lead Levels in Relation to a Decline in Use of Leaded Gasoline, 1976-1980, from Trends in the blood lead levels of the US population, in "Lead versus Health" edited by M Rutter and RR Jones, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester and New York, pp33-58June 1983

  6. Annest, Joseph L; Pirkle, James L; Makuc, Diane; Neese, Jane; Bayse, David; & Kovar, Mary Grace, Chronological Trend In Blood Lead Levels Between 1976 And 1980, The New England Journal Of Medicine Vol 308 No 23, 9th June 1983

  7. Associated Octel, Associated Octel: Fuel Composition Analysis and Information, 1995, South Wirral, UK

  8. Associated Octel, NEWSLETTER: Petroleum, Air Quality and Health - Firm Evidence of unleaded's greater carcinogenic content, 1995, South Wirral, UK

  9. Associated Octel, PAMPHLET: Petrol - Facing Reality, 1995, South Wirral, UK

  10. Associated Octel, PAMPHLET: Petrol and the Air You Breathe, 1995, South Wirral, UK

  11. Balzer, Dr Ben, Lead Poisoning - [PowerPoint Presentation] on The LEAD Group's website at www.lead.org.au/bblp/sld012.htm September, 2000, Sydney

  12. Brown, Craig (1996) "Question: Will Lead-Paint Litigation Be as Big as Asbestos? Answer: We Can Only Hope it Will Be That Small" in For the Record published by Luce, Forward, Hamilton and Scripps, Vol 11, No 1, Spring 1996

  13. CEPA (Commonwealth Environment Protection Authority), Lead Roundtable [Agreements] - 29 July, 1993, Canberra

  14. CEPA (Commonwealth Environment Protection Authority), Roundtable Conference on Lead - First Meeting - Lead in Petrol: Options Paper - 29 July, 1993a, Canberra

  15. Chiaradia, Massimo; Gulson, Brian L; James, M; Jameson, CW; and Johnson, D, Identification Of Secondary Lead Sources In The Air Of An Urban Environment, Atmospheric Environment Vol 31 No 21, August 1997

  16. CNN.com, Lead Exposure, Inactivity Linked To Alzheimers, 4th May 2000,

  17. Cox, Anthony; Beil, Stuart; and Neck, Moston, "The OECD Risk Reduction Strategy for Lead: An Economic Perspective - ABARE [Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics] Research Report 94.12", Commonwealth of Australia, 1994, Canberra

  18. Cribb, Julian, Death Comes in an Invisible Chemical Soup in LEAD Action News Vol 2 No 4 p4 Spring, 1994, published by The LEAD Group Inc., Sydney

  19. Cribb, Julian, Toxic Lead Deaths Overtake Road Toll, The Australian, 8th Sept 1993. Reprinted in LEAD Action News, vol 3 no 3, Winter, 1995, published by The LEAD Group Inc., Sydney

  20. Donovan, John, Lead in Australian Children - Report On The National Survey Of Lead In Australian Children, AIHW (Australian Institute of Health & Welfare), 1996, Canberra

  21. EPA (Environment Protection Authority) NSW, FACTSHEET: Unleaded Petrol and Pre-1986 vehicles, 1994, Sydney

  22. Fett MJ; Mira M; Smith J; Alperstein G; Causer J; Brokenshire T; Gulson B; Cannata S, Community Prevalence Survey Of Children's Blood Lead Levels And Environmental Lead Contamination In Inner Sydney, MJA [Medical Journal of Australia], Vol 157, 441-445, 5th October 1992

  23. Gidlow, Dr David, Company Medical Officer, Associated Octel, Gasoline Composition: No Such Thing as "Green" Fuel letter to Consumer's Health Forum of Australia, March 24, 1995, South Wirral, UK

  24. Gilchrist, Gavin and Beale, Bob, Lead Damaging IQ's of 75000 children, Sydney Morning Herald, 29th March 1996, Sydney

  25. Gordon, Theresa, No-LEAD, Letter to Environment Minister Ros Kelly seeking a national lead strategy and international cooperative lead risk reduction strategy, 10th May, 1992, Newcastle NSW

  26. Greenpeace Australia Ltd, Briefing Notes - LEAD IN AUSTRALIA: The Poisoning of Our Children - The need for urgent coordinated activity by the Australian Federal government, May 1992, Sydney

  27. Greenway RD, Leaded vs Unleaded in "Pacific Ultralights Monthly" magazine, early 1998

  28. Gulson, B.L., Jameson, C.W., Mahaffey, K.R., Mizon, K.J., Korsch, M.J., Vimpani G. Pregnancy increases mobilization of lead from maternal skeleton. J. Lab Clin Med., 130, 51-62. (MRF/926) 1997

  29. Gulson,B.L., Jameson, C.W., Mahaffey, K.R., Mizon, K.J., Korsch, M.J., Cameron, M.A., Vimpani, G., Eisman, J.A. Mobilisation of lead from the skeleton during the post-natal period is larger than during pregnancy. J Lab Clin Med., 131, 324-329. (MRF/955) 1998

  30. Hill, Senator Hon. Robert, LETTER: $15,000 Grant is Appropriate Funding Level for the Lead Advisory Service Australia, 1st December 2000, Canberra

  31. ILZRO (International Lead Zinc Research Organisation Inc.), Figure 57 - Blood Lead Levels United States - blood lead values taken from literature referenced in Appendix A: US Blood Lead Literature Data 1935 - 1990, from "Risk Reduction Monograph No. 1: Lead", 1993, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

  32. ILZRO, Lead in Gasoline - Environmental Issues, 1991, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

  33. IOMC (Inter-Organisation Programme for Sound Management of Chemicals for the United Nations Environment Program, UNITAR, UNICEF, WHO, FAO, UNIDO & OECD), Global Opportunities for Reducing the Use of Leaded Gasoline, 1998

  34. Kelly, Ros, Minister for the Environment, Sport and Territories, Roundtable Conference on Lead in Petrol - Opening Address - Canberra 29 July 1993

  35. LEAD Group, The, MEDIA RELEASE: Green Games Sham - Visitors Will Breathe Leaded Air - Why? [Including List of 55 Countries that will Ban Leaded Petrol Before Australia Does], 30th August 2000, Sydney

  36. LEAD Group, The, MEDIA RELEASE: Helping At Least 75,000 Lead Poisoned Australian Children Not Worth $150,000 To The Federal Government, 31st May 1996, Sydney

  37. Lead Roundtable Agreements - 29th July 1993, Parliament House, Canberra.

  38. Lovei, Magda (1998) "Phasing Out Lead From Gasoline" World Bank Technical Paper No. 397 - Pollution Management Series, The World Bank, 1998, Washington, DC

  39. McKinney, Merritt, Lead Exposure Speeds Up Brain Aging, Reuters Health - 24th October 2000

  40. Mendelsohn, A; Dreyer, B; Fierman, A; Rosen, CM; Legano, LA; Kruger, HA; Lim, SW; and Courtlandt, CD, Low-Level Lead Exposure And Behavior In Early Childhood, Pediatrics Vol. 101 No. 3 March 1, 1998
     http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/101/3/e10.full

  41. Mira, Michael; Bawden-Smith, Jason; Causer, Jane; Alperstein, Garth; Karr, Margaret; Snitch Peter; Waller, Graeme & Fett, Michael, Blood Lead Concentrations Of Preschool Children In Central And Southern Sydney, MJA, Vol 164, 1st April 1996

  42. Moss, Mark E; Lanphear, Bruce P; and Auinger, Peggy, Association Of Dental Caries And Blood Lead Levels, JAMA Vol. 281 No 24 p 2294 -2298, 23rd June 1999

  43. Needleman, Herbert L; Riess, Julie A; Tobin, Michael J; Biesecher, Gretchen E; & Greenhouse, Joel B, Bone Lead Levels And Delinquent Behaviour, JAMA [Journal of the American Medical Association] Vol 275, No. 5. 2nd July 1996

  44. Needleman, Prof Herbert (editor), Human Lead Exposure, CRC Press, 1992, Florida

  45. NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council), Summary Statement Of The 115th Session Of The NHMRC, 2 June 1993 regarding revision of the 1987 (103rd session) Guidelines for lead in Australians, 1993, Canberra

  46. NPI (National Pollutant Inventory) 1998-99 http://www.environment.gov.au/npi Canberra

  47. NRC (National Research Council), Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations, National Academy Press, 1993, Washington, DC

  48. NRMA (National Roads and Motorists Association), Unleaded Petrol - Is it Dangerous? in "Open Road", May - June 1996, p39, Sydney

  49. O'Brien, Elizabeth, The LEAD Group Inc. Letter to Environment Minister Ros Kelly seeking a national strategy to eliminate childhood lead poisoning, 19th May, 1992, Sydney

  50. OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development), RESTRICTED Draft Co-Operation on Existing Chemicals: Risk Reduction Lead Country Report On Lead, 21st May 1991, Paris

  51. OECD, RESTRICTED Draft Risk Reduction Strategies for Lead, 10th November 1992, Paris

  52. OECD, Risk Reduction Monograph No. 1: Lead, 1993, Paris

  53. Pirkle, MD, James L. PhD; Brody, Debra J. MPH; Gunter; Elaine W; Kramer, Rachel A. ScD; Paschal, Daniel C. PhD; Flegal, Katherine M. PhD, MPH; Matte, Thomas D. MD, MPH (1994), The Decline in Blood Lead Levels in the United States - The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), p284 JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association), July 1994 - Vol 272, No. 4.

  54. Schwartz, BS; Stewart, WF; Bolla, KI; Simon, D; Bandeen-Roche, K; Gordon, B; Links, JM; & Todd, AC, Past adult lead exposure is associated with longitudinal decline in cognitive function, Neurology 55, October 2000

  55. Schwartz, Joel; Pitcher, Hugh; Levin, Ronnie; Ostro, Bart; Nichols, Albert L, Costs And Benefits Of Reducing Lead In Gasoline: Final Regulatory Impact Analysis, US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), February 1985, Washington DC

  56. Tanner, Lindsey, Lead Standards May Be Too High - Studies Say Exposure May Be Worse Than We Thought, Spokesman Review, Associated Press, 28 May 2000

  57. Thomas, Valerie M, Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, The Elimination of Lead in Gasoline, Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, Vol. 20: 301-324 (Volume publication date November 1995) DOI: 10.1146/annurev.eg.20.110195.001505. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.eg.20.110195.001505

  58. Thomas, Valerie M; Socolow, Robert H; Fanelli, James J; and Spiro, Thomas G, Effects Of Reducing Lead In Gasoline: An Analysis Of The International Experience, Environmental Science & Technology Vol 33 N0 22 pp3942-7, 1999

  59. WHO (World Health Organisation), IPCS (International Program on Chemical Safety) - Environmental Health Criteria for Inorganic Lead - First Draft, November 1992, Geneva.

PDF version of this file: New strategies needed to cut lead pollution

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