LEAD Action News

LEAD Action News Vol 3 no 2 Autumn 1995 ISSN 1324-6011
The journal of The LEAD (Lead Education and Abatement Design) Group Inc.

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Last Updated 15 November 2012
Copyright The LEAD Group Inc. 1991 - 2012
PO Box 161 Summer Hill NSW 2130 Australia
Phone: +61 2 9716 0014

LEAD Action News

LEAD Action News Vol 3 no 2 Autumn 1995 ISSN 1324-6011
Incorporating Lead Aware Times ( ISSN 1440-4966) and Lead Advisory Service News ( ISSN 1440-0561)
The journal of The LEAD (Lead Education and Abatement Design) Group Inc.

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bell system lead poisoning
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Areas for Future Lead Research

The following is an extract from "The Health Effects of Low Level Exposure to Lead" by Prof Herbert L. Needleman & Dr. David Bellinger. Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 12: 111-140 (Volume publication date May 1991) 

lntroduction: http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.pu.12.050191.000551

Most studies of childhood lead exposure have focused on psychometric intelligence, i.e. reading and math achievement. Little attention has been paid to higher order behavior, such as ability to get along with peers and to accept the prevailing social mores. There is growing evidence that lead-exposed children have difficulty in attention (64);p some evidence suggests that exposure is associated with aggressiveness (48). Attention deficit with hyperactivity, coupled with antisocial behavior, is a strong predictor of criminality (52, 55). Criminal behavior has been found to be higher in males, blacks, and urban dwellers. It displays itself early in life; criminals are more likely to have been hyperactive as young children and to have come from disorderly homes with poor housekeeping (106). All of these factors are associated with lead exposure. Carefully designed case control and forward studies of the association of lead exposure with antisocial behavior are clearly warranted.

The studies of Kitchen et al (42, 4 1) and Nation et al (6 1) suggest that studies of lead exposure in drug and alcohol abusers are worth pursuit. Case control studies of older individuals who are past the ages of peak exposure should benefit from new advances in the technology of in vivo lead measurement.

Almost all studies of lead toxicity have focused on young children, and more recently on fetuses in utero. Because the fetus clearly is not protected from lead, maternal exposure has become a subject of considerable interest. Hormonal changes associated with pregnancy might mobilize lead stores, which would create an endogenous source of fetal exposure, even if external exposure during pregnancy is low (56, 100). Less attention has been paid to paternal exposure and its consequences for the father and his potential offspring, despite evidence that suggests that lead is a gametoxin. Studies of male productive function and fetal consequences of paternal exposure are needed.

Another ignored issue is the effect of early lead exposure on the aged. Most lead is deposited in bone, where it is relatively inert. But with aging, bone demineralizes, which possibly provides an 'endogenous source of ongoing exposure (96). No information on the sites of redistribution of bone lead is available. Does some of this lead get to the CNS? Is lead one factor in the disordered memory and cognition found in some older patients?

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Last Updated 15 November 2012
Copyright The LEAD Group Inc. 1991 - 2012
PO Box 161 Summer Hill NSW 2130 Australia
Phone: +61 2 9716 0014