LEAD Action News
LEAD Action News Volume 12 Number 2, December 2011, ISSN 1324-6011
Incorporating Lead Aware Times ( ISSN 1440-4966) and Lead Advisory Service News (ISSN 1440-0561)
The Journal of The LEAD (Lead Education and Abatement Design) Group Inc.
Editor: Anne Roberts

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Chronology of Leaded Gasoline / Leaded Petrol History –

Knowledge of the dangers of lead in petrol / gasoline;

Steps taken and not taken, to phase out leaded petrol;

Steps remaining to achieve global leaded petrol phase-out.

By Elizabeth O'Brien, Manager, Global Lead Advice & Support Service (GLASS) run by The LEAD Group Inc. Australia. Partner, UNEP Partnership for Cleaner Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV) and Zac Gethin-Damon, LEAD Group Campaigner for the End of Leaded Petrol Globally by the End of 2011, edited by Anne Roberts for The LEAD Group Inc.


NB: E-copies of all non-web-published or no-longer-online references (except the book by Walker) are available from The LEAD Group Inc. Please use the Contact Us form at www.lead.org.au/cu.html to request copies.

Al-Rudainy, Laith Abdulmajeed, Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq (2010) Blood Lead Level Among Fuel Station Workers, Oman Med J. 2010 July; 25(3): 208-211, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3191642/?tool=pubmed

Annest, Joseph L; Pirkle, James L; Makuc, Diane; Neese, Jane; Bayse, David; & Kovar, Mary (1983) Grace Chronological Trend In Blood Lead Levels Between 1976 And 1980 The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), The New England Journal Of Medicine Vol 308 No 23, www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM198306093082301

Associated Press, (2011) United Nations: Leaded gasoline to be eliminated worldwide in two years after long fight, Published: Oct 27 2011 in the Washington Post, reprinted 28 Oct 2011 in the Burma Digest (2011) http://burmadigest.info/2011/10/28/burma-related-news-october-28-2011/

Calmy-Rey, Micheline, the President of the Swiss Confederation (2011) Micheline Calmy-Rey letter to Elizabeth O'Brien received 2/8/11 RE: Swiss companies Xstrata & Alcor & their activities linked with addition of lead to gasoline. Switzerland is committed to [implementing] the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, pers comm., 25 July 2011.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) (1991) Preventing Lead Poisoning In Young Children - A Statement By The Centers For Disease Control [4th Revision of original 1975 strategy], Oct 1991, http://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/p0000029/p0000029.asp

Charnley, Gail (2000) GAIL CHARNLEY - RISK ANALYSIS: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE, INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE: RISK ANALYSIS AND ITS ROLE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION 18 and 19 July 2000 Brussels, http://ec.europa.eu/food/risk/session5_1_en.pdf

De Jong, Rob (2011) Email to Elizabeth O'Brien, The LEAD Group Inc RE: Can you help set a precedent? The global elimination of leaded petrol by the end of 2011, UNEP Partnership for Cleaner Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV) Clearing House, Nov 30 2011.

Donovan, John; with assistance from Anderson, Phil; Daley, Caroline; Lea, Tony; and Luhse, Peter (1996) Lead in Australian Children: Report On The National Survey Of Lead In Children, AIHW (Australian Institute of Health & Welfare), 1996, www.lead.org.au/Lead_in_Australian_children.pdf

EPA US (Environmental Protection Agency, United States) (1996), EPA Takes Final Step in Phaseout of Leaded Gasoline, www.epa.gov/history/topics/lead/02.html

Farrell, Don, (2011) Letter dated 9 Nov 2011 from Senator The Honorable Don Farrell RE: Elizabeth O'Brien's correspondence of 28 June 2011 to the Prime Minister, the Hon Julia Gillard MP, concerning leaded petrol. Letter received 15 Nov 2011 by The LEAD Group Inc.

Funding Universe (1996) Company Histories & Profiles: Ethyl Corporation www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Ethyl-Corporation-Company-History.html 

Albermarle (2011) Albermarle - History PROUD PAST, BRIGHT FUTURE, Albermarle, undated, circa Dec 2011, accessed 22 Dec 2011, WWW.ALBEMARLE.COM/ABOUT/HISTORY-10.HTML ; PRINT VERSION: WWW.ALBEMARLE.COM/FW/MAIN/FW_PRINT.ASP?PRINTLAYOUTID=6

Gethin-Damon and O’Brien, Elizabeth (2011) OECD Guidelines to Multinational Enterprises: The Case Against Innospec’s Continued Sale of TEL for Leaded Gasoline / Leaded Petrol - The exact provisions of the OECD Guidelines to Multinational Enterprises not abided by Innospec, The LEAD Group Inc, 25 Oct 2011.

Gethin-Damon, Zac and O'Brien, Elizabeth; edited by Roberts, Anne (2011) PCFV Partner's Action to Make Leaded Gasoline History - 26-27 October 2011 Nairobi [re: ending the era of leaded petrol / leaded gasoline - presentation by The LEAD Group at United Nations Global Partnership Meeting of PCFV] 26 Oct 2011, www.lead.org.au/bblp/TLG%20Presentation%20at%20Nairobi%2020111026-27/
; see link at www.unep.org/transport/PCFV/meetings/9GPM.asp

Gilbert, Steven G. and Weiss, Bernard (2006) A rationale for lowering the blood lead action level from 10 to 2 µg/dL, Neurotoxicology. 2006 September; 27(5): 693-701, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2212280/pdf/nihms37310.pdf

ICCM (International Conference on Chemicals Management) (2011) International Lead Poisoning Prevention Day of Action - Elimination of Lead Paint  ; Side event to be held on Thursday 17 November 2011 at the first meeting of the Open-ended Working Group (OEWG) of the International Conference on Chemicals Management, International Conference on Chemicals Management (ICCM), Hosted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the Government of Nigeria as a contribution to the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint (GAELP), 1 November 2011 www.saicm.org/documents/OEWG/OEWG1-side-event%20bronchure%20final.pdf

IFCS and US (2008) DRAFT FOR COMMENT BY 18 FEBRUARY 2009 - Emerging policy issues: Draft information document on lead in paints, SAICM (Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management), 9 Feb 2008, www.saicm.org/documents/iccm/ICCM2/emerging%20issues/Draft%20information

Innospec Incorporated (2008) Innospec Annual Report 2007: For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2007. Form 10-K, Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, United States Securities Exchange Commission, Washington D.C. 20549, www.innospecinc.com/assets/_files/documents/apr_08/cm__1207823244_10-K

Innospec Incorporated (2009) - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Market Watch, Feb. 20, 2009, previously at www.marketwatch.com:80/news/story/10-k-innospec-inc/story.aspx?guid=%

Innospec Incorporated (2011) Innospec Annual Report 2010: ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010. INNOSPEC INC. March 2011, www.innospecinc.com/assets/_files/documents/apr_11/cm__1301911642_Form_10-K_

Innospec Incorporated (undated) Octane Additives, Innospec Website accessed 2 Dec 2011, www.innospecinc.com/octane-additives.html

IPCS (International Programme on Chemical Safety) (1995) Environmental Health Criteria for Inorganic Lead, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc165.htm

IPCS of the World Health Organisation (WHO) (1977) Environmental Health Criteria: No. 3 Lead, www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc003.htm

IPIECA (International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association) (2003) Getting the lead out: Downstream strategies and resources for phasing out leaded gasoline, www.ipieca.org/publication/getting-lead-out-downstream-strategies-and-resources-

Kitman, Jamie Lincoln (2000a) We Visit Octel, The Nation, 20 Mar 2000, globalleadnet.com/135/the-secret-history-of-lead-octel

Kitman, Jamie Lincoln (2000b) 8,500 Years Of Lead, 79 Years Of Leaded Gasoline, The Nation, 20 Mar 2000, www.thenation.com/article/timeline

Kitman, Jamie Lincoln (2000c) The Secret History Of Lead, The Nation, 2o Mar 2000, www.thenation.com/article/secret-history-lead?page=full

Kotulak, Ronald (2002) Study links early adult deaths to lead - 30 million in U.S. could be at risk, originally published Chicago Tribune, 27 Dec 2002 at www.chicagotribune.com/features/health/chi-0212270325dec27,1,3244427.story [no longer online as at 9 Dec 2011]

Kovarik, William (2011) CHRONOLOGY OF LEAD AND LEADED GASOLINE, Radford University, 18 Nov 2011, www.radford.edu/~wkovarik/envhist/TEL.Chronology.html

Lean, Geoffrey (2011) Pollution: triumph of the inconvenient truth, Derek Bryce-Smith's warnings about lead in petrol made him a public health hero, The Telegraph 29 July 2011, www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/environment/8671336/Pollution-triumph-of-the-inconven

Lovei, Magda (1998) Phasing Out Lead From Gasoline - Worldwide Experience And Policy Implications, World Bank Technical Paper No: 397 - Pollution Management Series, www.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1998/01/01/000

Malone, Jane (2011), US ACCLPP recommends >5 µg/dL to identify children with "elevated blood lead levels" and reiterates: Low Level Lead Exposure Harms Children - A Renewed Call for Primary Prevention, 17 Nov 2011 Email sent by National Center for Healthy Housing (NCHH), reprinted with permission with new title by The LEAD Group Inc, www.lead.org.au/fs/Low_Level_Lead_Exposure_Harms_Children_20111117.pdf

Murdock, Barbara Scott; (2005) Tracking toxins: Biomonitoring outshines the indirect assessment of exposure in determining which pollutants enter the body, and whether they cause disease or disability, European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) Rep. 2005 August; 6(8): 701-705, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1369152/

O’Brien, Elizabeth (2007) Countries where Leaded Petrol is Possibly Still Sold for Road Use As at 24th May 2007, The LEAD Group, 24 May 2007 www.lead.org.au/fs/fst27_20070524.html

O'Brien, Elizabeth (2011a) Letter to President Obama - you have the ability to end the use of TEL in gasoline, The LEAD Group Inc, 28 June 2011

O'Brien, Elizabeth (2011b) Letter to Swiss President Micheline Calmy Rey you have the power to end the use of TEL in gasoline, The LEAD Group Inc, 28 June 2011

O'Brien, Elizabeth (2011c) Letter to Prime Minister Australia Julia Gillard will you stop Australian Lead in TEL for petrol, The LEAD Group Inc, 28 June 2011

O’Brien, Elizabeth (2011c) Letter To: Prime Minister Australia Julia Gillard will you stop Australian Lead in TEL for petrol, The LEAD Group Inc, 28 June 2011.

O’Brien, Elizabeth (2011d) Letter To: UK Prime Minister David Cameron - you have the ability to end the use of TEL in petrol, The LEAD Group Inc, 28 June 2011.

O’Brien, Elizabeth (2011e) Letter To: Innospec CEO Patrick Williams please cease the supply of TEL for petrol, The LEAD Group Inc, 28 June 2011.

O’Brien, Elizabeth (2011f) Letter To: Xstrata CEO Ivan Glasenberg Please cease the supply of Lead for TEL for petrol, The LEAD Group Inc, 28 June 2011.

O’Brien, Elizabeth (2011g) Letter To: NCPs (OECD National Contact Points) of Switzerland, Australia {Frank diGeorgio}, the United States and the United Kingdom; CC:  Prof Hatfield; James Rochow; RE: Mediation to end the sale of leaded petrol globally, 27 Aug 2011.

O'Brien, Elizabeth and Aitken, Madeline (2005) Countries possibly still to ban leaded petrol as at 20th October 2005 [67 countries], The LEAD Group Inc, 20 Oct 2005, www.lead.org.au/fs/fst27superseded.html

O’Brien, Elizabeth and De Jong, Rob (2011) Discussion between Elizabeth O'Brien of The LEAD Group and Rob De Jong of UNEP Partnership for Cleaner Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV) Re inviting Innospec to the PCFV Global Partnership Meeting (GPM) 2011 in Nairobi, dated from 5 Oct 2011 to 12 Oct 2011, The LEAD Group Inc and PCFV

O’Brien, Elizabeth and Roberts, Anne (2008) Time for ban on export of Australian lead for petrol, The LEAD Group Inc, 6 April 2008, www.lead.org.au/mr/20080406.html

O’Brien, Elizabeth and Roberts, Anne (2011) Editorial: Who will be the champion of a world free from leaded petrol? LEAD Action News V11N4, The LEAD Group Inc, 28 June 2011, www.lead.org.au/lanv11n4/lanv11n4-1.html ; PART OF www.lead.org.au/lanv11n4/LEAD_Action_News_Vol_11_No_4.pdf

O’Brien, Elizabeth and Sara, Sue (2011) Lead Letters - Asking The Lead Supplier To Cease Supply, Published online 1 Aug 2008 by The LEAD Group Inc, O'Brien letter dated 20 May 2008, Sue Sara letter dated 3 June 2008, web-published with kind permission of Corporate Affairs Queensland, Xstrata, www.lead.org.au/lanv9n1/lanv9n1-3.html

O’Brien, Elizabeth; Roberts, Anne; Smith, Ian; Edited by Sullivan, Rachelle (2006) Lead Mining Stewardship Grey Lead and the Role of The LEAD Group, The LEAD Group Inc, 7 Sep 2006, www.lead.org.au/fs/fst31.html

OECD (2011) OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises [MNE] - RECOMMENDATIONS FOR RESPONSIBLE BUSINESS CONDUCT IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT, OECD Ministerial Meeting, 25 May 2011 www.oecd.org/dataoecd/43/29/48004323.pdf

OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development) (1991) RESTRICTED Draft - Co-Operation On Existing Chemicals: Risk Reduction Lead Country Report on Lead

OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development) (1996) Resolution Of The Council Concerning The Declaration On Risk Reduction For Lead, www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=C(96)42/FINAL

PCFV (Partnership for Clean Fuels & Vehicles), UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) (2011) Outcome and influence evaluation of the UNEP based Partnership for Clean Fuels & Vehicles (PCFV) [incl. Pg 6: "The Global Benefits of Phasing Out Leaded Fuel" re: Hatfield & Tsai study findings re: global crime, deaths, IQ loss & economic loss per annum], PCFV (Partnership for Clean Fuels & Vehicles), UNEP (United Nations Environment Program), 1 April 2011 www.unep.org/Transport/PCFV/PDF/leadEvaluation_summaryreport.pdf

PHS US (Public Health Service, United States) (1925) Proceedings Of A Conference to Determine Whether Or Not There Is A Public Health Question In The Manufacture, Distribution, Or Use Of Tetraethyl Lead Gasoline, Prepared by Direction of the Surgeon General, Public Health Bulletin No. 158, Treasury Department, United States Public Health Service, August 1925, web-published as 8 large image files under the title "Transcript of 1925 Tetraethyl Lead Conference" at www.lead.org.au/bellsystemleadpoisoning/Scanned%20document%20library.htm

Reisch, Mark (2006) Getting The Lead Out: Innospec's new name and stock listing are part of ongoing specialties strategy, Business, Chemical and Engineering News published by the American Chemical Society, April 24, 2006, Volume 84, Number 17, p.26 http://pubs.acs.org/cen/business/84/8417bus2.html

Robbins, N; Zhang, Z; Sun, J; Ketterer, M; Lalumandier, J; Shulze, R (2010) Childhood lead exposure and uptake in teeth in the Cleveland area during the era of leaded gasoline, Science of the Total Environment 408 (2010) 4118-4127 , http://schubertcenter.case.edu/synapseweb46/documents/en/US/Robbins_2010_childhood

Roberts, Anne, Editor of LEAD Action News, based on the research paper by Cooper, Danielle, LEAD Group Intern and Social Inquiry and International Law student, University of Technology Sydney (UTS) (2011), Six countries still used leaded petrol. Why? How the various factors relate to the continued use of leaded petrol; Democracy and the Elimination of Leaded Petrol in 2006; Press Freedom; Per Capita Gross Domestic Product, LEAD Action News V11N4, The LEAD Group Inc, 28 June 2011, www.lead.org.au/lanv11n4/lanv11n4-5.html ; www.lead.org.au/lanv11n4/lanv11n4-6.html ; www.lead.org.au/lanv11n4/lanv11n4-7.html ; www.lead.org.au/lanv11n4/lanv11n4-8.html ; www.lead.org.au/lanv11n4/lanv11n4-9.html ; PART OF www.lead.org.au/lanv11n4/LEAD_Action_News_Vol_11_No_4.pdf

Roberts, Anne; O’Brien, Elizabeth and Taylor, Robert (2009) Dangers of a blood lead level above 2 µg/dL and below 10 µg/dL to both adults and children, The LEAD Group Inc, 22 Sep 2009, hyperlinks updated 14 Mar 2011, www.lead.org.au/fs/Dangers_of_BPb_Level_Above_2ug_dL_and_Below_10ug_dL_

Ryder, Ralph (1996) GUILTY OCTEL [now Innospec] SHOW NO REMORSE - Chemical Co fork out Ł290,000 for toxic leak that 'didn’t' endanger community, Originally published online in ToxCat Vol 2 No 2 pg.8-10, UK Spring 1996, web-published with permission of Ralph Ryder, by The LEAD Group, 29 Nov 2011, www.lead.org.au/ToxCat_Vol_2_No_2%20edited.pdf

Ryder, Ralph (1999) OPERATING WITHIN STRICT ENVIRONMENT AGENCY LEVELS THIS COMPANY - OCTEL [NOW CALLED "INNOSPEC"] RELEASED 5,340 TONNES OF POISONOUS CHEMICALS IN ONE YEAR - NO THREAT TO HUMAN HEALTH CLAIM "POVERTY THE CAUSE OF ILL-HEALTH NOT POLLUTION" SAYS TOWN'S MP. Originally published online in ToxCat Vol 2 No 14 February 1999, Published with permission and correction of Ralph Ryder by The LEAD Group 8 Dec 2011, www.lead.org.au/Toxcat/ToxCat_Vol_2_No_14_Octel.pdf 

SAICM (Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management) (2006) Global Plan of Action, page 33 of 84, 6 June 2006 [no longer online as at 17 June 2011].

Schulz, C., Angerer, J., Ewers, U., Heudorf, U., Wilhelm, M., on behalf of the Commission on Human Biomonitoring of the German Federal Environment Agency (2009) Revised and new reference values for environmental pollutants in urine or blood of children in Germany derived from the German Environmental Survey on Children 2003-2006 (GerES IV). International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 212, 637-647, Sep 2009, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2009.05.003

Schwartz, Joel; Pitcher, Hugh; Levin, Ronnie; Ostro, Bart; Nichols, Albert L; (1985) Costs And Benefits Of Reducing Lead In Gasoline: Final Regulatory Impact Analysis, Environment Protection Authority (EPA) US, http://yosemite.epa.gov/ee/epa/eerm.nsf/vwAN/EE-0034-1.pdf/$file/EE-0034-1.pdf

SEC (US Securities and Exchange Commission) (2010) Securities & Exchange Commission v. Innospec, Inc., Civil Action. SEC FILES SETTLED FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT CHARGES AGAINST INNOSPEC, INC. FOR ENGAGING IN BRIBERY IN IRAQ AND INDONESIA WITH TOTAL DISGORGEMENT AND CRIMINAL FINES OF $40.2 M, SEC (US Securities and Exchange Commission), 18 Mar 2010 www.sec.gov/litigation/litreleases/2010/lr21454.htm

Ken Sexton, Larry Needham, James Pirkle. Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals - Measuring chemicals in human tissues is the "gold standard" for assessing people's exposure to pollution. AMERICAN SCIENTIST January-February 2004. http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/feature/2004/1/human-biomonitoring-of-environmental-chemicals

(Abstract) http://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/pdf/AS_article_biomonitoring.pdf (Full)

Shy, Carl M (1990) Lead In Petrol: The Mistake Of The XXth Century [ABSTRACT], World Health Statistics Quarterly 43 (1990) - World Health Stat Q. 1990;43(3):168-76, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2238697.

Sullivan, Rachelle, Intern, The LEAD Group; and Farey, Diane, Site Communications Manager, Innospec Inc, UK, Inquiry from The LEAD Group regarding supply of lead from Australian mines to Innospec. Reply from Innospec's Diane Farey: I understand [the third party supplier is] Britannia, pers comm. Sullivan email dated Aug 25, 2006], Diane Farey emails dated Aug 23 and Aug 25, 2006.

Taylor, Robert (2008) Countries where Leaded Petrol is Possibly Still Sold for Road Use As at 8th October 2008. Total Population Directly Affected: 262,452,533, The LEAD Group, 8 October 2008, www.lead.org.au/fs/fst27_20081008.html

Taylor, Robert (2009) Countries where Leaded Petrol is Possibly Still Sold for Road Use As at 22nd June 2009. Total Population Directly Affected: 274,249,081, The LEAD Group, 22 Jun 2009, www.lead.org.au/fs/fst27_20090622.html

Taylor, Robert (2010a) Dangers of a blood lead level above 2 µg/dL and below 10 µg/dL to adults, The LEAD Group, 2 Dec 2012, www.lead.org.au/fs/Dangers_of_BPb_Level_Above_2ug_Adults_20101202.pdf

Taylor, Robert (2010b) Dangers of a blood lead level above 2 µg/dL and below 10 µg/dL to children, The LEAD Group, 2 Dec 2012, www.lead.org.au/fs/Dangers_of_BPb_Level_Above_2ug_children_20101202.pdf

Taylor, Robert (2010c) Countries Where Leaded Petrol is Possibly Still Sold for Road Use 280,583,921 TOTAL POPULATION DIRECTLY AFFECTED in Afghanistan, Algeria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Egypt, Iraq, N. Korea, Kosovo, Montenegro, Myanmar, Serbia, Yemen, The LEAD Group, 5 May 2010, www.lead.org.au/fs/fst27_20100510.html

Taylor, Robert (2011) Countries Where Leaded Petrol is Possibly Still Sold for Road Use 194,770,689 TOTAL POPULATION DIRECTLY AFFECTED in Afghanistan, Algeria, Iraq, N. Korea, Myanmar, Yemen, The LEAD Group, 17 Jun 2011 www.lead.org.au/fs/fst27.html

TetraBOOST Limited (2000-2011a), Frequently Asked Questions: 2. Is TetraBOOST a lead substitute? TetraBOOST Website, Accessed 2 Dec 2011, www.tetraboost.com/info/faq/#q2

TetraBOOST Limited (2000-2011b), Welcome to TetraBOOST, TetraBOOST Website homepage, Accessed 2 Dec 2011, www.tetraboost.com/

TetraBOOST Limited (2000-2011c), Frequently Asked Questions: 26. Am I polluting the environment? TetraBOOST Website, Accessed 2 Dec 2011, www.tetraboost.com/info/faq/#q26

TetraBOOST Limited (2000-2011d), Distributors, TetraBOOST Website, Accessed 2 Dec 2011, www.tetraboost.com/info/distributors/

TetraBOOST Limited (2010) Press Release – October 2010, TetraBOOST Price Increase, Oct 2010, www.tetraboost.com/press/october2010.php

Tsai, Peter L and Hatfield, Thomas H (2011) Global Benefits From the Phaseout of Leaded Fuel - Going Unleaded Journal of Environmental Health, December 2011, (Volume 74, Number 5, pp. 8-14), a publication of the National Environmental Health Association (NEHA), US, 1 Dec 2011, https://www.neha-ecommerce.org/imispublic/Core/Orders/category.aspx?catid=172 ; also web-published, with permission of NEHA by The LEAD Group at www.lead.org.au/Global_Benefits_from_the_Phaseout_of_Leaded_Fuel-Going_

UNEP (2011) Clearing House Presentations, 9 GPM 26 October [2011] including Map of Leaded petrol phase-out Global Status and Matrix of Phase out of leaded petrol - remaining countries - CH activities; Innospec expects TEL sales to end 2012, UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) Clearing House of the Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (CH of PCFV), 26 October 2011 www.unep.org/transport/PCFV/PDF/9GPM/UNEP_CH_progressreports_pcfv

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA (2010) UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, Plaintiff Vs INNOSPEC, INC., Defendant. Civil Action No. Case: 1:10-cv-00448. 3/18/2010. Complaint re Innospec bribery 2000-2007 Iraq & Indonesia, SEC (US Securities and Exchange Commission), 18 Mar 2010 www.sec.gov/litigation/complaints/2010/comp21454.pdf

Walker, Gabrielle (2007) An Ocean of Air: Why the Wind Blows and Other Mysteries of the Atmosphere, Bloomsbury.

Walsh, Michael (1999) Earth Summit Watch: Programs - The global phaseout of leaded gasoline: A Successful Initiative, Earth Summit Watch http://earthsummitwatch.org/gasoline.html

World Resources Staff (1998) Laden with lead, in EarthTrends, http://earthtrends.wri.org/pdf_library/feature/ene_fea_lead.pdf

Yu, Alan, OECD NCP (National Contact Point) for USA, U.S. Department of State (2011a) pers comm with Elizabeth O’Brien, The LEAD Group Inc, 24 Nov 2011.

Yu, Alan, OECD NCP (National Contact Point) for USA, U.S. Department of State (2011b) pers comm with Elizabeth O’Brien, The LEAD Group Inc, 15 Dec 2011.


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