LEAD Action News
LEAD Action News  Vol 6 No 2,  1998, ISSN 1324-6011
Incorporating Lead Aware Times ( ISSN 1440-4966) and Lead Advisory Service News ( ISSN 1440-0561)
The journal of The LEAD (Lead Education and Abatement Design) Group Inc.

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Health Impacts of Lead Poisoning

A preliminary listing of the health effects & symptoms of lead poisoning

by Vance Vella, Elizabeth O’Brien, Elisa Idris and others - a work in progress

The following list of the symptoms and effects of lead poisoning has been compiled to raise awareness that more blood lead assessments must be done in time for further poisoning to be prevented. After each symptom or effect, the numbers indicate the publications which refer to that effect. So far, only 58 publications have been examined of the thousands published. More will be reviewed and this list updated as time permits.

However, remember that most people who are lead poisoned present with no symptoms at all.


Children

Nervous system

  • Encephalopathy [brain disease] (1, 2, 3, 4, 20, 35)

  • Acute encephalopathy (11)

  • Alters function of developing brain (16)

  • Alters electroencephalogram [EEG] (16)

  • Convulsions (1, 2, 3, 4)

  • Cerebral Palsy (1)

  • Neurotransmitter release disrupted (11)

Peripheral nervous system

  • Peripheral nerve disturbances [reduced touch sensitivity] (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 18)

  • Slowed nerve conduction velocity [decreased reaction times] (2, 14, 18, 35, 39, 58)

  • Foot/ hand drop (1, 3)

  • Proprioreceptive pathways involved in balance altered (2)

  • Dizziness (1,  4, 38)

Growth & development

  • Delayed neurodevelopment [e.g. in sitting up, walking, talking] (2, 58)

  • Stature and growth rate reduction (1,  2, 3, 18, 35, 39)

  • Impaired pituitary-thyroid endocrine system (18, 21)

  • Osteoporosis in later years (43)

  • Weight loss (58)

Cognitive development

  • I.Q. levels decrease (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 15, 24, 35, 36, 39, 41, 58)

  • Cognitive function deficits (2, 26, 33)

  • Verbal function / linguistic deficits ( 2, 14, 15)

  • Learning difficulties (11, 15, 35)

  • Decreased educational performance (35)

  • Decreased reading, maths, non-verbal reasoning ability & short term memory, even at blood lead levels less than 10µg/dL (41)

  • Autism (7) in genetically predisposed individuals with metallothionein dysfunction (42)

Behaviour

  • Aggression, violence, hostility, anti-social or delinquent behaviour (8, 26)

  • Attention problems; distractibility, restlessness (8, 12, 15, 21, 38, 58)

  • Externalising and internalising behaviours (8)

  • Hyperactive behaviours, difficult to manage (1, 2, 8)

  • Inappropriate / uncontrolled behaviours similar to ADD behaviours, increased frequency (2, 11)

  • Irritability (1, 38)

  • Lethargy (1)

  • Increased school absenteeism (35)

Hearing

  • Hearing impairment; auditory sensitivity decreased (2, 3, 5, 10, 14, 18, 21, 26, 32, 35, 39, 58)

  • Auditory evoked response patterns altered (2)

  • Auditory processing altered (2, 10)

Sight

  • Retinal degeneration (6, 10)

  • Depressed sensitivity of rod photoreceptors (10)

  • Perceptual function deficits (2, 21)

  • Visuo-spatial skills deficit [eg jigsaws] (15)

Movement and muscular

  • Visual-motor skills deficits [hand-eye coordination] (2, 3, 15, 26)

  • Fine motor dysfunction (1,  2, 3)

  • Motor function deficits (2)

  • Impaired muscular strength and endurance (26)

  • Paralysis (3)

  • Somatic complaints [aches and pains] (8, 38)

Digestive system

  • Impaired Vitamin D metabolism [affecting bone remodelling, mineral absorption and calcium uptake] (2, 3, 6, 18, 24, 35, 3839, 58)

  • Colic (3, 25, 35)

  • Loss of appetite (1, 2)

  • Vomiting (1, 4)

  • Constipation, diarrhoea, anorexia (38, 58)

  • Abdominal cramps (39, 58)

Renal (kidneys), blood and circulation

Death (1, 2, 3, 4, 19, 35, 46, 58)

Perinatal Development and Reproductive Health Effects

Foetal

  • Preimplantation loss (3)

  • Miscarriage, still birth, neonatal death (2, 3, 4, 5, 18, 20, 24, 31, 47)

  • Reduced gestational age, preterm birth (1, 2, 3, 5, 18, 24)

  • Reduced birth weight (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 18, 19)

  • Minor congenital / chromosomal anomalies (2, 3, 4, 18, 31)

  • Reproductive abnormalities; disorders (5, 13, 38)

  • Decreased placental functioning (19)

  • Lead passed via placenta to foetus from mother (39, 58)


Adults

  • Altered testicular functioning (24)

  • Hypospermia [low sperm count] (3, 5, 19, 47)

  • Asthenospermia [sperm weakness] (3, 5, 20)

  • Teratospermia [sperm abnormalities] (3, 5, 31)

  • Erectile dysfunction, impotence (3, 40)

  • Decreased serum testosterone (3)

  • Lead presence in seminal fluid (31)

  • Pituitary effects (31)

  • Sterility, infertility (5, 31, 35, 39, 58)

  • Effects on ovaries (19)

  • Decreased libido / sex drive (2, 21, 31)

  • Impotence (31)

Kidneys

Nervous system

  • Encephalopathy [brain disease] (2, 4, 20, 24, 25, 34)

  • Cerebrovascular diseases, stroke, cerebral haemorrhage (2, 27, 28, 29, 30)

  • Psychomotor impairment (13, 34)

  • Peripheral nervous system impairment [eg wrist-drop] (13, 24, 40, 47)

  • Peripheral Arterial Disease(53, 54)

  • Slowed nerve conduction velocity [slowed reaction time] (2, 34, 58)

  • Tremor (25, 26, 38, 40, 55)

  • Paresthesia, paralysis (25)

Cardiovascular and circulation

  • Hypertension, elevated blood pressure (2, 14, 17, 22, 35, 38, 40, 58)

  • Increased systolic blood pressure in men (35)

  • Cardio-toxic effects (14)

  • Increased risk of cardiovascular disease (17)

  • Coronary artery disease (2)

  • Anaemia; falling haemoglobin levels (2, 3, 5, 13, 24, 35, 38, 39, 47, 58)

  • Platelet dysfunction (2)

  • Increased erythrocyte [red blood cell] protoporphyrin (35)

  • Increased ALA in urine (34)

  • Increased protoporphyrin in urine (34)

  • Increased risk of early death from heart attack or stroke (46)

Intellectual and mental

  • Depression (2, 13, 38)

  • Anxiety (38)

  • Personality changes (34)

  • Death from violence, suicide, accidents (29)

  • Impaired concentration (19, 25, 34, 38)

  • Deficits in short term memory (2, 13, 19, 34, 38)

  • Cognitive function deficit (58)

Behaviour

  • Fatigue, muscular exhaustion (2, 19, 25, 34, 38, 47)

  • Sleep disturbance, insomnia (19)

  • Irritability, agitation, restlessness, aggression (2, 13, 19, 24, 34, 47, 58)

Sensory

  • Abnormalities in visuomotor coordination (2)

  • Abnormalities in fine motor control (2)

  • Deficits in visual acuity (2)

  • Hearing loss (18, 35, 39, 47, 58)

  • Somatosensory dysfunction [eg deficits in detection of vibration, changes in temperature] (2, 23)

 Gastrointestinal / Digestive

  • Effects on gastrointestinal tract (24)

  • Loss of appetite (19, 40)

  • Nausea (19)

  • Constipation, diarrhoea (25, 38)

  • Abdominal pain, cramps (25, 34, 40, 47)

  • Weight loss, anorexia (25, 38)

Bone, muscle and joint

  • Bone marrow alterations (21)

  • Myalgia [muscle pain] (25, 38, 40, 58)

  • Pain in buttocks and cramps in the legs as early stages of peripheral arterial diseases (53, 54)

  • Muscular weakness (34, 38, 39, 40, 47)

  • Arthralgia [joint pain] (25, 38, 40, 47)

  • Bone marrow alterations (21)

  • Bone lead mobilisation during menopause leads to decreased neurocognitive performance and increased systolic blood pressure in post-menopausal women (44)

  • Wrist drop [the inability to hold the hand extended] (47)

  • Long term effect: linked to osteoporosis which has symptoms of decline in bone density and increase risk in fractures, also inhibit normal fracture healing (48, 49 ,50, 51, 52)

Other

  • Headaches (2, 19, 21, 40, 47)

  • Decreased longevity (35, 39)

  • Adrenal dysfunction (38)

  • Teeth with blueblack-lines near gum base (38, 40, 9.)

  • Pallor (40)

  • Cell damage (at blood lead level between 20 to 30 mg/dL for men and between 10 to 20 mg/dL for women) (39)

  • Probable human carcinogen (56, 57)

Death (2, 4, 19, 39, 46)

  • Increased risk of early death from cancer and all other causes (46)


Effects of lead from animal studies

  • Impaired attention, learning and short-term memory in primates (12)

  • Behavioural impairment; inflexibility in behavioural change in primates (12)

  • Elevated blood pressure at moderate levels (17)

  • Impaired immune system in new-borns of rats fed lead [greater susceptibility to asthma ] (37, 45)

  • Increased incidence of tumors (cancer) in rats born to mothers fed lead (45)

  • Altered response to stimulant drugs; attenuation of drug induced hyperactivity in rats (2)

  • Impaired attention, learning and short-term memory in primates (12)

  • Teratogenic effect causing birth deformities (4)

  • Low bone density in lab animals such as mice and fractures due to lead-induced osteoporosis do not heal properly (52)

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References

  1. Smith, M. A., Grant, L. D. & Sors, A. (1989). Lead exposure and child development: an international assessment. Kleeven Academic Publishers.

  2. Silbergeld, E. K. (1992). Neurological perspective on lead toxicity.In Human Lead Exposure, ed H. L. Needleman, CRC Press.

  3. National Research Council (US). (1993). Measuring lead exposure in infants children and other sensitive populations. National Academy Press, Washington DC.

  4. Chemwatch Database. (1996) Lead Arsenate. http://www.chemsw.com/

  5. Alperstein, G., Reznik, R. & Duggin, G. (1991). Lead: Subtle forms and new modes of poisoning. The Medical Journal of Australia Vol 155 Sept 16.

  6. Berry, M., Garrard, J. & Greene, D. (1994). Reducing Lead Exposure in Australia. Commonwealth Department of Human Services and Health, Canberra.

  7. Clark, H. R. (1995). The cure for all diseases. Pro Motion Publishing, San Diego California. http://drclarkia.com/books/The_Cure_For_All_Diseases.html

  8. Needleman, H. L., Riess, J. A., Tobin, M., Biesecker, G. & Greenhouse, J.B. (1996). Bone Lead Levels and Delinquent Behavior. vol 275 No 5 JAMA. February 7. pp 363-369. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=395592 Abstract.

  9. F. Gil, A. Facio, E. Villanueva, M.L. Pérez, R. Tojo, A. Gil, The association of tooth lead content with dental health factors, The science of the total environment. Volume 192, Issue 2, 2 December 1996, Pages 183–191. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969796053132 Abstract.

  10. Fox, D. A. (1992). Visual and Auditory System Alterations following Developmental or Adult Lead Exposure: a critical review. In Human Lead Exposure, ed H. L. Needleman, CRC Press.

  11. Goldstein, G. W. (1992). Developmental neurobiology of lead toxicity. In Human Lead Exposure, ed H. L. Needleman, CRC Press

  12. Rice, D. C., (1992). Behavioural Impairment produced by developmental lead exposure: Evidence from primate research. In Human Lead Exposure, ed H. L. Needleman, CRC Press

  13. Matte, T. D., Landrigan P. J. & Baker E. L. (1992). Occupational Lead Exposure. In Human Lead Exposure, ed H. L. Needleman, CRC Press

  14. Wedeen R. P. (1992). Lead, the kidneys and hypertension. In Human Lead Exposure, ed H. L. Needleman, CRC Press

  15. Bellinger, D. & Needleman, H. L. (1992). Neurodevelopmental effects of low-level lead exposure in children. In Human Lead Exposure, ed H. L. Needleman, CRC Press

  16. Burchfile, J. L., Duffy, F. H., Bartels P. H., & Needleman, H. L. (1992). Low-level lead exposure: Effect on quantitative electroencephalography and correlation with neuropsychologic measures. In Human Lead Exposure, ed H. L. Needleman, CRC Press

  17. Schwartz, J. (1992). Lead, blood pressure and cardio-vascular disease In Human Lead Exposure, ed H. L. Needleman, CRC Press

  18. Schwartz, J. (1992). Low level health effects of lead: Growth, developmental and neurological distrubances. In Human Lead Exposure, ed H. L. Needleman, CRC Press

  19. Rutter, M. & Jones, R. (ed) Lead versus health: Sources and effects of low level lead exposure. Wiley medical Publications

  20. National Academy of Sciences. (1980). Lead in the Human Environment. Washington DC.

  21. Castellino, N., Castellino, P. & Sannolo, N. (ed). (1995). Inorganic lead exposure. Lewis Publishers

  22. Hu, H., Pepper, L. & Goldman, R. Effect of repeated occupational exposure to lead, cessation of exposure, and chelation on levels of lead in bone.. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 1991;20(6):723-35. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1805610 Abstract.

  23. Rokho Kim, MD, DrPH; Andrea Rotnitzky, PhD; David Sparrow, DSc; Scott T. Weiss, MD, MSc; Carrie Wager, BSc; Howard Hu, MD, ScD . (1996). A Longitudinal Study of Low level lead exposure and impairment of renal function. JAMA Vol 275 No 15 April 1996. p. 1177-1181. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=400546 Abstract.

  24. Fischbein, A. (1992). Occupational and environmental lead exposure. In Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 2nd edn. Ed W.N. Rom. Little, Brown & Co.

  25. Rempel, D. MD. The Lead-Exposed Worker California occupational health program JAMA. 1989; 262(4): 532-534. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=378115 Abstract.

  26. Repko, J. (1976). Behavioural toxicology of inorganic Lead. In Health Effects of Occupational Lead and Arsenic Exposure - a symposium, ed.B. W. Carnow, US Dept of Health, Education and Welfare Public Health Service Divn of Surveillance Hazard Evaluation and Field Studies, Feb.

  27. Fanning, D. (1988). A mortality study of lead workers 1926 - 1985. In Archives of Environmental Health, Vol 43 No 3 May/June. pp. 247-251. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3382250 Abstract.

  28. D Malcolm, H A Barnett. (1982). A mortality study of lead workers 1925 - 76. In British Journal of Industrial Medicine Vol 39. pp. 404-410 http://oem.bmj.com/content/39/4/404.abstract
  29. Davies, J. M. (1984). Long-term mortality study of chromate pigment workers who suffered lead poisoning. In British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol 41. pp. 170-178 http://oem.bmj.com/content/41/2/170.abstract?sid=7a6b24e7-2419-4a15-ab25-5d78f48d25f8

  30. McMichael, A. J. & Johnson, H. M. Long term mortality profile of heavily exposed lead smelter workers. In Journal of Occupational Health, Vol 24 No 5 May 1982. http://journals.lww.com/joem/Abstract/1982/24050/Long_term_Mortality_Profile_of_Heavily_Exposed.8.aspx

  31. Winder, C. (1989). Reproductive and chromosomal effects of occupational exposure to lead in the male. In Reproductive Toxicology Review. Vol 7. pp. 221-233.

  32. Schwartz, J. & Otto, D. (1987). Blood lead, hearing thresholds, and neurobehavioral development in children and youth. In Archives of Environmental Health Vol 42, No. 21 pp 153-160, 1st May 1987. http://hero.epa.gov/index.cfm?action=reference.details&reference_id=57538    http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_Report.cfm?dirEntryID=48404

  33. Fergusson, D. M., Hurwood, L. J. & Lynskey, M. T. (1997). Early dentine lead levels and educational outcomes at 18 years. In Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol 38 No 4. pp. 471-478. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01532.x/abstract;jsessionid=4E242DD9F8439BE0BB0A5398
    1CAEB7B4.d03t02

  34. NSW Workcover Authority. Occupational Medicine Handbook Ch 5 "Lead" p. 58

  35. Royce, S. E. (1992). Lead toxicity. US Dept of Health and Human Services Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Sept . http://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/p0000017/p0000017.asp

  36. Gatsonis, C. A.. & Needleman, H. L. (1992). Recent epidemological studies of low-level lead exposure and the IQ of children: a meta-analytic review In Human Lead Exposure, ed H. L. Needleman, CRC Press

  37. Day, M. (1998) Lead in the womb. New Scientist Magazine. 23 May 1998 p.7

  38. Werbach, M. F. (1997). Foundations of nutritional medicine. Third Line press, Tarzana California.

  39. Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registrar. (1989). Toxicological profile of lead. US ATSDR. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/TP.asp?id=96&tid=22 

  40. Salome, F. & Gulson, B. (1996). Lead paint management. Grad School of the Environment, Macquarie University

  41. Lanphear, Bruce P; Dietrich, Kim; Auinger, Peggy; Cox, Christopher. (2000) Cognitive Deficits Associated with Blood Lead Concentrations <10 µg/dL in US Children and Adolescents, Public Health Reports Nov 2000, Volume 115, 521-529; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1308622/pdf/pubhealthrep00019-0027.pdf

  42. Walsh, William J; Usman, Anju; Tarpey, Jeffrey; and Kelly, Tanika. (2001) Metallothionein And Autism Pfeiffer Treatment Center, Health Research Institute, Naperville, Illinois USA. The booklet can be ordered from info@HRIPTC.org or via the website www.hriptc.org for US$20 + postage but is not web-published. October 2001

  43. Wentzel, Michael, Democrat & Chronicle, 25/2/02, UR [University of Rochester] links childhood lead to osteoporosis: http://www.mindfully.org/Health/Folder%20Settings/2002/Lead-Exposure-Osteoporosis25feb02.htm

  44. Silbergeld, Ellen, Menopause and Lead: Consequences and Determinants of Bone Lead Mobilization, Women's Environments & Women's Health Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, October 22, 1999.

  45. NBC News, Lead in Pregnancy Linked to Asthma, July 29 [1998?] re: study by Dr. Rodney R. Dietert, Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y published in journal Toxicological Sciences. See http://www.cyber-nook.com/water/tbl_cont.html

  46. Lustberg, M; Silbergeld, E, Blood Lead Levels And Mortality, in Arch Intern Med 2002 Nov 25;162(21):2443-9, http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=214370 [LID 6921]

  47. Government of Ontario, Canada, Ministry of Labour, Health and Safety, "Lead on Construction Projects - The Health Effects of Lead", http://www.labour.gov.on.ca/english/hs/pdf/gl_lead.pdf

  48. Escribano, A., M. Revilla, E.R. Hernandez, C. Seco, J. Gonzalez-Riola, L.F. Villa, H. Rico. (1997), Effect of lead on bone development and bone mass: A morphometric, densitometric, and histomorphometric study in growing rats. Calcified Tissue International. 60(2): 200-203. http://www.springerlink.com/content/81u4pc2002ecgx54/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9056171

  49. Gruber, H.E., H.C. Gonick, F. Khalil-Manesh, T.V. Sanchez, S. Motsinger, M. Meyer, C.F. Sharp. (1997). Osteopenia induced by long-term, low- and high-level exposure of the adult rat to lead. Mineral & Electrolyte Metabolism. 23(2): 645-73. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9252971; http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=2781185

  50. Katrina Smith Korfmacher, PhD, Long Term Costs of Lead Poisoning. How much can New York save by stopping lead? Environmental Health Sciences Center, University of Rochester. http://www.sehn.org/tccpdf/lead%20costs%20NY.pdf

  51. Professor Brian Gulson, Macquarie University News, Good News for aging Bones, No longer in publication.

  52. St. Louis Lead Prevention Coalition  - University of Rochester study links osteoporosis to childhood lead exposure, http://www.leadprevention.org/web/uploads/childhood_lead_&_osteoporosis.doc

  53. AHA Journal News report (2004),"Safe' levels of lead, cadmium may raise risk of peripheral artery disease", 08/06/04. [LID 7385]  http://www.charitywire.com/charity8/05787.html

  54. Ana Navas-Acien, MD, MPH; Elizabeth Selvin, MPH; A. Richey Sharrett, MD, DrPH; Emma Calderon-Aranda, PhD, MD; Ellen Silbergeld, PhD; Eliseo Guallar, MD, DrPH. Lead, Cadmium, Smoking, and Increased Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease (Circulation. 2004;109:3196-3201.) © 2004 American Heart Association, Inc. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/109/25/3196.full

  55. Louis, ED, EC Jurewicz, LK Applegate, P Factor-Litvak, M Parides, L Andrews, V Slavkovich, JH Graziano, S Carroll and A Todd. (2003). "Association Between Essential Tremor and Blood Lead Concentration Environmental Health Perspectives", 3 July 2003 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241711/pdf/ehp0111-001707.pdf

  56. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Volume 87 (2006) Inorganic and Organic Lead Compounds  [LID7420] http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol87/index.php

  57. National Toxicology Program (of the US department of Health and Human Services) Report on Carcinogens Twelfth Edition 2011 http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/twelfth/roc12.pdf

  58. Dr. Ben Balzer, "Lead Poisoning Slide Show, 6 September 2000"  www.lead.org.au/bblp/bblp.html

Contents | Previous Item | Next Item

The LEAD Group Inc. Fact Sheet Index

NSW Lead Reference Centre and NSW Government Publications On this site

  1. About the Global Lead Advice and Support Service (GLASS)

  2. Main Sources of Lead

  3. How Would You Know If You or Your Child Was lead poisoned?

  4. Lead aware housekeeping

  5. Ceiling dust & lead poisoning

  6. Is your yard lead safe?
    你的院子是铅安全的吗

  7. Health Impacts of lead poisoning

  8. Rotary Questionnaire

  9. Lead poisoned Pets and Your Family

  10. Childhood Lead Poisoning Risk Factor Questionnaire

  11. Is Your Child Safe From Lead? - What Can You Do About Lead?

  12. Lead in Drinking Water in Australia

  13. Have We Really Resolved The Lead Issue?

  14. The Importance of the Availability of "Spot Tests" for Lead in Paint

  15. Pregnant or Planning a Pregnancy

  16. Breastfeeding and Lead

  17. Lead in breast milk

  18. Beware The Lead In Lead Lighting

  19. Renting and Lead

  20. What to do if you have too much lead in your tank water

  21. Lead Contamination in Stormwater

  22. Contamination At Shooting Ranges

  23. Banned: Leaded Wick Candles

  24. Lead, Ageing and Death
    铅,衰老和死亡

  25. Metal miniatures: How to minimise the risks of lead poisoning and contamination

  26. 7 Point Plan for the MANAGEMENT OF LEAD by Australian parents and carers

  27. Countries where Leaded Petrol is Possibly Still Sold for Road Use, As at 17th June 2011

  28. Lead Poisoning And The Brain - Cognitive Deficits And Mental Illness

  29. Facts and Firsts of Lead

  30. Lead mining royalties by state and territory

  31. Lead Mining Stewardship - Grey Lead and the Role of The LEAD Group

  32. Preventative Strategies of The LEAD Group

  33. What do Doctors need to do about Lead?

  34. A Naturopath's Experience Of Lead & People With Diagnosed Mental Illness

  35. Case File: Helping Manage Australian Lead in Petrol - How GLASS Works

  36. Glass Web & Service-Users, Experts & Volunteers, by Country; Countries with Leaded Petrol for Road Use & Worst Pollution

  37. Lead in ceiling dust

  38. Lead paint & ceiling dust management - how to do it lead-safely

  39. Esperance parliamentary inquiry follow-up factsheet: Where to from Here??
    埃斯佩兰斯议会调查后续情况说明书:从这里去哪里??

  40. Broken Hill lead miners factsheet 1893 with Note 20081015

  41. Helping a Doctor Help 35,000 Lead-Poisoned People Around the Lead Smelter at La Oroya in Peru
    Ayuda a un doctor que ayuda 35,000 personas envenenadas por plomo alrededor de la fundidora de plomo en la Oroya-Peru
    案例档案:帮助一个医生救助在秘鲁的拉奥罗亚的铅冶炼厂周围的35000铅中毒的人民全球铅咨询和支持的服务机构是怎末工作的

  42. Fact sheet for Australian toy importers and traders

  43. Iron Nutrition & Lead Toxicity
    Informe de Acciones – Hierro y Plomo en la Nutrición
    情况说明书铁的营养和铅的毒性

  44. Sanitarium-Are You getting Enough Iron

  45. Do-It-Yourself-Lead-Safe-Test-Kits-flyer

  46. Blood lead testing: who to test, when, and how to respond to the result

  47. Dangers of a blood lead level above 2 µg/dL and below 10 µg/dL to both adults and children
    血铅水平高于
    2微克/分升和低于10微克/分升对予成人和儿童的危险。

  48. Lead Exposure & Alzheimer’s Disease: Is There A Link?

  49. In CHINA - Blood lead testing: who to test, when, and how to respond to the result
    在中国血铅测试:谁应该去检查,什么时候,如何对待不同的测试结果

  50. Why you should have your ceiling dust removed before you take advantage of the Australian government's Energy Efficient Homes Package: Insulation Program

  51. Alperstein et al Lead Alert - A Guide For Health Professionals 1994

  52. Ceiling Dust WorkCover Guide Lee Schreiber Final Nov 1999

  53. What can I do about climate change AND lead?

  54. The Need for Expert Clinical Assessments in Diagnosis Of Heavy Metal Poisoning

  55. Why you should have your ceiling dust removed before you have insulation installed

  56. Thirty Thought-Starters on Ceiling Void Dust in Homes

  57. Pectin: Panacea for both lead poisoning and lead contamination

  58. Nutrients that reduce lead poisoning June 2010

  59. Lead poisoning and menopause

  60. Fact sheet For Schoolkids From Professor Knowlead About Lead

  61. Prevention of Exposure to Lead at Work in Indonesia

  62. Mencegah kontak dengan timbal di tempat kerja di Indonesia

  63. How to Protect Your Family from Lead in Indonesia

  64. Bagaimana melindungi keluargamu dari timbal di Indonesia

  65. Cigarette Smoking & Lead Toxicity
     صحيفة معلومات: التدخين والتسمم بالرصاص

  66. Medical Evaluation Questionnaire For Occupational Lead Exposure

  67. Dangers of a blood lead level above 2 µg/dL and below 10 µg/dL to children

  68. Dangers of a blood lead level above 2 µg/dL and below 10 µg/dL to adults

  69. Biosolids used as fertilizer in China and other countries
    在中国和其他国家生物固体作肥料

  70. What are the lead poisoning risks of a lead pellet, bullet or shot lodged in the body?

  71. Alcohol’s link to higher lead and iron levels

  72. USA Case Definition of Adult (including Occupational) & Child Elevated Blood Lead Levels (EBLL)

  73. Low Level Lead Exposure Harms Children - A Renewed Call for Primary Prevention

  74. Occupational Health & Safety Fact Sheet Dangers of lead for roofers

  75. Let’s Make Leaded Petrol History - Let’s Make Leaded Gasoline History

  76. Lead, Your Health & the Environment. Available in Arabic, Chinese, English, Korean, Macedonian, Spanish, Turkish and Vietnamese 

  77. Lead Safe Housekeeping

  78. Old Lead Paint

  79. Working safely with lead

  80. A Renovator's Guide To The Dangers Of Lead (Brochure 30 pages)

  81. A Guide For Health Care Professionals (Brochure 34 pages)

  82. A Guide To Keeping Your Family Safe From Lead (Brochure 20 pages)

  83. Lead Hazard Management In Children's Services (Brochure 15 pages)

  84. A Guide To Dealing With Soil That Might Be Lead-Contaminated

  85. Exposure Assessment: Lead Neurotoxicity - Is the Center for Disease Control's goal to reduce lead below 10 µg/dl blood in all children younger than 72 months by 2010, good enough?

 

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